Journal of Aviation

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Year 2023 Volume 7 Issue 2

Obtaining Condition Monitoring Data for the Prognostics of the Flight Time of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Melih ERŞEN, Mehmet KONAR

Abstract (Özet)

In recent years, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that can fly at low and medium altitudes has become widespread in the world. Knowing the airtime and the maximum range that the UAVs, which are used in critical missions, especially in the military field, are important for the reliability of the mission to be carried out. Therefore, in this study, the creation of a data set to calculate the flight time and range of the UAV using the prognostic method, which is one of the heuristic methods, is discussed. For this purpose, a fixed-wing UAV was used in this study to create the data set to be used in the prognostic methods. The UAV used in flights has a weight of 2.5 kg, a wingspan of 1.3 m, and a body length of 1 m. In addition, thanks to the control card used in the UAV, both manual and autonomous flights were made. The flight data of the UAV was transferred to the Ground Control Station (GGS) instantly. As a result, data sets were obtained from manual and autonomous flights to be used in the prognostic method. By using these data sets, it will be possible to calculate the duration and range of the UAV in the future flights.

Effects of Meteorology Data on Crew Resource Management in Aviation
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Altuğ Aykan BAYAZITOĞLU, Habibe GÜNGÖR

Abstract (Özet)

Risks associated with meteorology must be continuously assessed and carefully managed by the flight crew to ensure the safety of flights. This study aims to examine meteorological events’ favorable and unfavorable effects on crew resource management in recent aviation operations. The face-to-face interview technique, one of the qualitative research methods, was used, and data were collected in light of the information obtained from the pilot pool of 50 people. In the study, the opinions of the crews on what kind of flight management and data analysis application they carried out were taken, accompanied by questions directed through meteorology, flight safety, and crew resource management factors. The collected data were analyzed by content analysis method. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that theoretical knowledge of stress management and a good analysis of meteorology is of vital importance. It has been evaluated that accidents and incidents that occur indirectly in aviation in meteorology can be prevented entirely, and by drawing attention to the importance of the crew resource management factor, it has been concluded that they can be prevented by working together with advanced meteorology systems and an up-to-the-date training.

Stock Price Prediction with Box-Jenkins Models: Delta Airlines Application
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Muhammed Fatih YÜRÜK

Abstract (Özet)

The aviation industry has a great impact on the economic development of countries. This industry is effective in increasing the global gross domestic product both directly and indirectly. The share of airline companies in this economic development is important. This study, it is tried to estimate the monthly stock price of an airline company that contributes to economic growth. In the study, the monthly prices of shares of Delta Airlines, which are among the largest airline companies in America, traded in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), covering the period of 2010 January-2021 December, were included. Stock prices are from Box- Jenkins models; It has been tried to estimate using Autoregressive Models (AR), Moving Average Models (MA), Autoregressive and Moving Average Model (ARMA). In the study, the (AR) model was included in the prediction modelling because it provided the assumptions. The result of the study showed that the Box- Jenkins approach gave successful results in the estimation outputs.

Design and Simulation of a Conformal Micro-Strip Patch Antenna at GNSS L1/ E1 Frequency Band
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Betül YILMAZ

Abstract (Özet)

In this paper, we have designed a conformal U-slot type micro-strip (µ-strip) patch antenna to be used in L1 frequency band. First, a primary design of flat, rectangular U-slot µ-strip patch antenna is designed around the center frequency of L1 band that is 1575.42 MHz. Then, this design has been converted to a conformal type such that it can be used cylindrical platforms such as missiles. The primary design of conformal U-slot µ-strip patch antenna has been optimized for the L1, E1 frequency band between 1563 MHz and 1587 MHz, and 1559 MHz and 1591 MHz; respectively. Then, antenna parameters such as operation bandwidth and the radiation pattern were reported based on the optimized simulation results for this stand-alone conformal antenna. Finally, this antenna has been positioned on a missile model and the antenna simulation is repeated to validate the effectiveness and the usability of this antenna on a realistic platform and the scenario. The real-physics antenna simulation of the final optimized conformal U-slot type µ-strip patch antenna mounted on the missile model has shown that this antenna is effectively operation between 1.5442 and 1.6077 GHz such that it can conveniently be used for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications of L1 and E1 band.

Investigation of the Effect of the Instrument Landing System on Flights to Konya Airport between 2019-2022 Years
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Ersin ÖKTEMER, Fatih Alpaslan KAZAN

Abstract (Özet)

The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is the most widely used navigation aid system among the precision approach types, which enables the pilots to approach the runway in the appropriate direction and glide slope, especially in foggy and snowy weather when the visibility is very low. This study investigated the relationship between flight disruptions and ILS in Konya Airport. In this context, meteorological events such as snow, ice, fog, and cancellation, divert and delay events caused by humans (company policy) at Konya Airport in the period of 2019-2022 were revealed with numerical data. In light of these data, it has been revealed that ILS not only provides safe flights but also prevents possible passenger complaints and financial losses by reducing the number of diverts, and therefore ILS is also of great importance in terms of customer satisfaction.

Bibliometric Analysis of Academic Publications on Artificial Intelligence and Aviation Keywords with VOSviewer
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Taha Utkan USLU, Birsen AÇIKEL

Abstract (Özet)

This study seeks to show the distribution of academic studies relating to the keywords “artificial intelligence” and “aviation” by years, by authors, by countries, and by organizations using bibliometric data of scientific publications indexed in the Web of Science database between 2005-2023. In this direction, a total of 215 publications were analyzed and categorized in terms of bibliometric indicators by doing an online search on the Web of Science, and VOSviewer, a bibliometric analysis technique was used. As a result of the bibliometric analysis of 215 articles published with the keywords “artificial intelligence” and “aviation” between 2005 and 2023, it has been observed that significant developments have been recorded after 2014 and that the most broadcasts were made in 2022. In order to obtain healthier results and to avoid information pollution, some limitations were introduced to the analysis, such as "minimum number of publications" and "minimum number of citations". “People's Republic of China” is the country with the highest number of publications, with 98 articles in compliance with at least 6 publication conditions. The organization that published at least 4 articles with the keywords “artificial intelligence” and “aviation” became "Chinese Civil Aviation University" with 12 publications. The authors who have at least 4 publications in the articles made with the keywords “artificial intelligence” and “aviation” are "Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini and Gianluca Di Flumeri" who have 10 publications.

A PESTEL Analysis of The Impacts of COVID-19 Crisis on Air Transportation Sector's Future
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Adem PINAR

Abstract (Özet)

In this study, the Covid-19 pandemic, which has significantly impacted the aviation industry, is examined from six external factors including political, economic, sociological, technological, environmental, and legal using a PESTEL analysis. Initially, flight restrictions were implemented due to the Covid-19 pandemic, and airline companies were also affected by government-imposed social distancing measures. Economically, the Covid-19 pandemic has been particularly damaging to passenger transportation, with some countries experiencing a recovery but others facing employment issues in the industry. Sociologically, there has been an increase in reluctance to fly and changes in consumer behavior and habits, with a decrease in demand for unnecessary products. This process has also led to a number of positive developments from a technological standpoint, such as the rapid development and deployment of new vaccines and health monitoring technologies, as well as a decrease in emissions from the industry. This study is original in its examination of the Covid-19 pandemic impacts on the aviation industry using a PESTEL analysis. Based on the study's findings, strategies should focus on restructuring the aviation industry for Covid-19 pandemic readiness and recovery, including promoting restructured travel packages, low-cost flights, and popular routes. Emphasis on energy efficiency and environmental sustainability is crucial.

Elevating Aviation Education: A Comprehensive Examination of Technology's Role in Modern Flight Training
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Nazmi DİNÇER

Abstract (Özet)

As the aviation sector witnesses rapid technological progress, it opens new avenues to improve training methodologies and optimize performance results. This exhaustive analysis delves into the influence of technology incorporation on the efficacy of aviation training, learner involvement, and skills retention. It examines a wide array of research, concentrating on significant aspects like immersive technologies, artificial intelligence, game-based education, remote and cooperative training, and the enduring consequences of technology-boosted training. The outcomes demonstrate a favorable link between technology incorporation and enhanced learning results, elevated learner enthusiasm, and superior knowledge retention. The analysis further pinpoints crucial future trajectories, such as the broadening of immersive technologies, the creation of adjustable training systems, and the assessment of long-lasting training impacts. By tackling ethical and privacy issues and formulating optimal practices and guidelines, the aviation sector can effectively tap into the possibilities offered by technology, resulting in better-equipped professionals, augmented safety norms, and heightened operational competence. This analysis acts as a significant reference for researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers, offering insight into the present state of technology-augmented aviation training and underlining paths for upcoming research and innovation.

Air Cargo Carrier Selection: The Case of Turkey
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Serdar ALNIPAK, Yusuf Can TUNABOYLU, Sefa CEYHAN

Abstract (Özet)

In this study, 5 companies operating in Turkey and carrying out the most air cargo shipments in 2021 (Turkish Cargo, MNG Airlines and Transportation, ACT Air Cargo, ULS Airlines Cargo Transportation and Sunexpress Cargo Transportation.) were investigated The aim is to evaluate and analyze them according to different criteria. These are 12 different criteria: Breadth of the network, the productivity of employees, adequacy of equipments, flexibility, undamaged delivery, image, cost, customer information systems, handling customer requests and complaints, special cargo handling capabilities, flight frequency, and punctuality. In the research design, using the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method, the opinions of 9 different experienced and active experts in the sector were used to evaluate the relevant criteria. A scale of 1 to 5 was used in the evaluation of the companies, with a value of 5 representing the maximum benefit for this criterion. As a result of the research, it was found that the most significant criteria in selecting air cargo companies are undamaged delivery, costs, and on-time delivery. In addition, (1) image, (2) flexibility, and (3) special cargo handling capabilities are among the results of the research, which are the least significant criteria. Another important result of this research is that Turkish Cargo is ranked first and MNG Airlines and Transportation is ranked second.

Understanding the Sintering Behavior and its Effect on the Thermal Conductivity of YSZ Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Garip ERDOGAN

Abstract (Özet)

Thermal barrier coatings are essential coatings to protect the combustion chamber liner material from harsh environments in modern gas turbines that are used in aerospace and land-based power generation facilities. As there are several different materials to produce thermal barrier coatings, the conventional thermal barrier coating is yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The most common method to manufacture YSZ coating is plasma spraying method due to its flexibility and rapid production capacity. Using plasma spraying, often requires understanding the process parameters effect on the coating structure. As there are many parameters to control coating process the main outcome of all parameters is the particle temperature and velocity during the spraying process hence the coating properties such as hardness, porosity ratio and deposition rates. Furthermore, not only produced microstructure but also during the service conditions sintering behaviour also be considered. Sintering behaviour of thermal barrier coatings results declining of their thermal insulation properties. Therefore, in this study we have evaluated sintering effect of on the thermal conductivity of the plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings. To achieve this objective, we produced free-standing coatings and subjected them to heat treatment, followed by measurements of their thermal conductivities. The results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the sintering behaviour and its impact on the thermal performance of thermal barrier coatings.

Measurement of Process-Performances of Turkish Airports Using Network Data Envelopment Analysis
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Miraç EREN, Murat Ahmet DOĞAN

Abstract (Özet)

The air transportation industry is continuously broadening by adding new airports operating with huge investments. Hence, increasing efficiency and productivity in this industry is becoming critical. At the same time, efficiency calculations are also an important tool used to identify weaknesses and contribute to the improvement of the performance of enterprises. Nevertheless, Classic DEA models are commonly insufficient to determine the efficiency of a system due to ignorance of its internal structure and the treatment of the system as a black box. Therefore, if a production system can be divided into subprocesses by using network DEA model, the results will be more plausible and satisfying. Within this scope, this paper aims to evaluate the efficiencies of 39 out of 56 airports in Türkiye from 2015 to 2019. The results indicate that less-populated airports managed by private entrepreneurs are more efficient than others. Moreover, another characteristic of these efficient airports is that they are both domestically and internationally preferred for leisure trips.

Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of CFRP Composite Used in New Generation Aircraft Wings
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Mustafa GÖK, Yılmaz KÜÇÜK, Murat PEHLİVANLI, Azmi ERDOĞAN

Abstract (Özet)

In this study, it is aimed to examine the effect of reinforcement laying angle on wear resistance of CFRP composites used in the automotive and aerospace industries. Experiments were carried out on Ball-On-Disc wear device under 1, 3 and 5 N loads at room temperature. 3D optical microscope was used to determine the volume losses in the samples. The worn surface morphology of the samples was examined with the help of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). In the test results, the volume losses of the samples increased depending on the increasing loads and shear rate. It has been understood that the change of the laying angle is important in the dry-sliding resistance of the samples. The wear resistance of the samples produced with 45 degree laying was better at both sliding speeds and all loads. It has also been understood that the laying angle is also effective in the coefficient of friction. Delamination, plastic deformation type dominant wear mechanisms have occurred.

Determining and Evaluating The Strategies of Air Cargo Freight Forwarders to Increase Business Volume with AHP Method
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Filiz MIZRAK, Gonca Reyhan AKKARTAL

Abstract (Özet)

Air cargo forwarders plays an essential role in air cargo transportation process. They provide service providing communication between the stakeholders in the supply chain. However, there is a fierce competition in this sector due to huge number of companies. For this reason, this companies need to respond to changes in the globalization era by applying some strategies. In this scope, the aim of this study is to determine and weight the strategies that forwarders operating in the air cargo sector can implement to increase their business volumes, using the studies in the literature, interviews with 10 experts working in different forwarder companies in Turkey, and the AHP method. Although strategies for companies to increase their business volumes examined in various studies, there is no study specifically for 'Air cargo transport companies'. In addition, any study using the AHP method for the sector has not been found in the literature. In this context, the study is unique in terms of sectoral practice and methodology. The finding of the study suggests that staff trainings to improve customer relations is the most important criteria for air cargo freight forwarders.

On Stationarity of Variance Calculation Series
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Ongun YUCESAN

Abstract (Özet)

While making reliability observations, more samples mean one can make a statistically representative prediction. It is possible to model the failure arrival characteristics statistically using this knowledge. As a natural product of many experiments, a mean and variance figure can be identified for modelling the different occurrences. Even though the different situations can be modelled with such parameters, it may not wholly outline the condition of the product being developed and under test. The variance calculation series derived from the original reliability observation series, which is normally used for simple variance calculation, can be an important consideration. This consideration is rarely encountered. With a mean and a variance figure, a statistical prediction can be made. However, with the very same parameters, another reliability characteristic possessing product or a subcomponent may exist. For this instance, identifying whether the variance calculation series has stationarity and incorporating it in calculations can yield a possible prediction of a more accurate statistical model. In this study, the variance calculation series is considered for their stationary character at hand and is shown to possess such character yielding further modelling possibilities and emphasizing the importance of this consideration.

The Importance of Periodic Oral and Dental Health Examination of Aircrew
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Gürkan Raşit BAYAR, Güneş SANAL, Dr. Öğr. Üyesi Şükrü Hakan GÜNDÜZ, Abdurrahman Engin DEMİR

Abstract (Özet)

The importance given to aviation and space science has increased with the advanced technological breakthroughs that made the 21st century to be called the "Space Age". As the aviation industry evolved, it was found that exposure to flight conditions and atmospheric pressure alterations has a variety of adverse effects on the physiological and psychological states of aircrew. There are several disorders that might cause medical incapacitations and thus jeopardize flight safety in such conditions. Oral, dental, and maxillofacial diseases are among those that, although manifesting locally, affect all bodily systems. For this reason, the diagnosis and treatment of such disorders should be thoroughly evaluated and carried out in accordance with aeromedical concerns. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the importance of periodic aeromedical examinations for the prevention of potential oral and dental health-related diseases, as well as medical issues of aircrew that require special attention in terms of flight safety.

Innovative Morphing UAV Design and Manufacture
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Sezer ÇOBAN, Tugrul OKTAY

Abstract (Özet)

In this study, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with passive pre-flight and active in-flight morphing capability was designed and manufactured. First of all, conceptual design work was done. Wing and tail, which are the main carriers, were selected to ensure maximum liftt, minimum drag and stability of the UAV. Liquid fuel engines were preferred due to their high power and airtime. The engine, which enables the controlled and uncontrolled flight of the UAV, has been run-in to make it safer and more efficient before being used in real-time flights. Profiles were selected by analyzing the tail set consisting of the rudder and the elevator. The nose cone of the unmanned aerial vehicle was produced by improving the aerodynamic performance. In the aircraft geometry, the passive morphing mechanism, which is performed once before the flight, and the active morphing mechanism, which is performed continuously during the flight, are manufactured using servo motors. This improved the flight performance and made it possible to fly in some unfavorable conditions. The most basic superior feature of the manufactured UAV from the existing UAVs is its ability to morphing.

Air-traffic Flow Prediction with Deep Learning: A Case Study for Diyarbakır Airport
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Ömer Osman DURSUN

Abstract (Özet)

Aviation industry develops rapidly. So the continuous growth of the aviation, accurate predictions play a crucial role in managing air traffic and optimizing airport operations. The prediction process involves various factors such as weather conditions, airport traffic, flight schedules, and historical data. Advanced techniques like machine learning contribute to enhancing the accuracy of predictions. In this context, air traffic data belonging to Diyarbakır province were utilized to predict the number of arrival aircraft to the airport using both traditional Autoregressive (AR) model and deep learning architecture, specifically the stacked Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model. The results indicate that the stacked LSTM model outperformed the AR model in terms of air traffic estimation. The AR model had a quite poorly MSE value of 48043.35 and an RMSE value of 219.18, while the stacked LSTM model achieved a significantly higher MSE value of 0.03 and an RMSE value of 0.17. The lower MSE values obtained by the stacked LSTM model indicate its ability to make more accurate predictions compared to the AR model. The stacked LSTM model's predictions were closer to the actual values, resulting in a more realistic estimation of air traffic. Accurate predictions enable efficient resource management, passenger planning, and airport security measures. Continuous efforts in predicting aircraft landings are necessary for the effective functioning of the aviation industry. In this study highlights the importance of predicting the number of aircraft landings at airports.

The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor in Linking Organizational Learning and Organizational Identification in the Aviation Industry
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Duygu ULUDAĞ, Melis SOYER, Merve MERT

Abstract (Özet)

In our study examined the mediating role of emotional labor in the effect of organizational learning on organizational identification. The purpose of the study is to measure the effect of organizational learning on organizational identification and to examine the mediating effect of emotional labor on the dimensions of learning. There are studies showing that organizational learning has a direct effect on organizational identification, but the mediating role of emotional labor has not been investigated. The population of the study was the employees of ground services in the aviation sector of the Marmara region, 400 employees were reached through random sampling and data were collected through questionnaires. According to the results of the research, organizational learning is effective on organizational identification and emotional labor plays mediating role in this effect. In this context, emotional labor has a mediating role in the effect of managerial commitment, systemic perspective, transparency and experimentation and informational transaction and integration on organizational identification, which are sub-dimensions of organizational learning.

Drone Technology in Transportation Management: A Systematic Review and Framework for Future Research
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Muhammed TURGUT, Bilal ŞEKER

Abstract (Özet)

This study examines the current state of the drone technology literature in detail, both academically and industrially. It describes the advantages and disadvantages of drones in the use of logistics activities, the methods used in the studies and the gaps in the literature. In addition, this study aims to reveal the academic efforts about drone-based transportation systems that will have a say in the future and which areas require effort in the future. In this article, a systematic literature review (SLR) about the use of drones in the transportation industry has been carried out. In total, 56 articles published in Elsevier's Scopus, Thomson Reuter's Web of Science, IEEE Xplore and ScienceDirect (Elsevier) databases were examined in detail. The findings show that the use of drones in transportation activities is an effective method. However, the fact that it is a technology that has just been integrated into business processes reveals that there are aspects that need to be developed. Especially in the last ten years, they found that businesses have benefited from drone technology in their transportation activities that increased their last mile delivery speed, efficiency, accessibility and customer satisfaction.

Virtual Training Applications in Aviation BITE Test Application
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Yunus SARIKAYA, Hakan AYDOĞAN, Faruk ARAS

Abstract (Özet)

In this study, the objective is to scientifically examine the usability of multi-user virtual environments as an alternative solution to traditional methods in order to enhance the effectiveness and create widespread opportunities for training applications in aviation, which are difficult and risky to implement on actual aircraft. For this purpose, a virtual environment application was developed, specifically focusing on the examination of Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) test procedures conducted by maintenance personnel during aircraft maintenance. The application included the design of a Multi-Function Control and Display Unit (MCDU) in the virtual environment. The benefits and limitations of the virtual environment application were discussed, highlighting how the challenging and risky working conditions can be efficiently transformed into practical training scenarios in various contexts, promoting the development and reinforcement of skills for personnel. Despite the extensive use of multi-user virtual environments in various fields, it is evident that there is scarce research conducted in the aviation maintenance and repair sector. This study serves as a significant initiative to draw attention to the potential usability of multi-user virtual environments for educational purposes in the aviation maintenance and repair sector.

Production of Nanostructured Fasteners with High Shear and Fatigue Strength for Using in Aircraft Components
Tarih: 25-07-2023 | Yazar(lar): Kazım Buğra GÜRBÜZ, Mustafa TAŞKIN

Abstract (Özet)

Multi-axis forging (MAF) and cyclic heat treatment are among the most widely used and easy to apply grain refinement methods. In this study, micro-alloyed steel samples were first subjected to MAF treatments at 880° C. Microstructural analysis showed that the average grain size, which was 13.2 µm initially, decreased to 11.2 µm application of the MAF. As a second-grain refinement technique, cyclic heat treatment was used. Samples were subjected to 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 cyclic quenching. With this method, it was observed that the average grain size decreased to 2,3 µm. The mechanical tests showed that the second MAF process increased the yield and tensile strength of the material by about 16% while decreasing the elongation by %2. These tests also presented cyclic quenching increased tensile strength of the samples after the first application.